The Digital Object Identifier System is for identifying content objects in the digital environment.


The DOI resolution factsheet specifies that is the preferred format:

Users may resolve DOI names that are structured to use the DOI system Proxy Server ( (preferred)). The resolution of the DOI name in this case depends on the use of URL syntax: the example DOI name doi:10.10.123/456 would be resolved from the address: "". Any standard browser encountering a DOI name in this form will be able to resolve it. The proxy service (both and the earlier but no longer preferred is accessible over IPv6, and supports DNSSEC. The proxy servers respond to HTTPS (preferred) as well as HTTP requests.

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Pattern for Local Unique Identifiers

Local identifiers in Digital Object Identifier should match this regular expression:

Example Local Unique Identifiers
10.1038/s41597-022-01807-3   Resolve
10.21/FQSQT4T3   Resolve
10.1333/s00897980202a   Resolve
10.1139/z02-135   Resolve
10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.11.065   Resolve
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195159561.001.1   Resolve
Pattern for CURIES

Compact URIs (CURIEs) constructed from Digital Object Identifier should match this regular expression:

Example CURIEs
Metaregistry Digital Object Identifier

The metaregistry provides mappings between the Bioregistry and other registries. There are 10 mappings to external registries for doi with 4 unique external prefixes.

Registry Name Registry Metaprefix External Prefix Curate
BioContext biocontext DOI
Biolink Model Registry biolink doi
Cellosaurus Registry cellosaurus DOI
EDAM Ontology edam 1188
FAIRSharing FAIRSharing logo fairsharing FAIRsharing.hFLKCn
Gene Ontology Registry go DOI logo miriam doi
Name-to-Thing Name-to-Thing logo n2t doi
Prefix Commons prefixcommons doi
Wikidata Property Wikidata Property logo wikidata P356

Providers are various services that resolve CURIEs to URLs. The example CURIE doi:10.1038/s41597-022-01807-3 is used to demonstrate the provides available for doi. Generation of OLS and BioPortal URLs requires additional programmatic logic beyond string formatting.

Name Metaprefix URI
Digital Object Identifier doi
Bioregistry bioregistry miriam
Name-to-Thing n2t
None scholia
None doi_http
None dx_doi_http
None dx_doi_https
None scholia
Extra Providers

Additional providers curated in the Bioregistry are listed here.

Code Name URL
doi_http Digital Object Identifier
dx_doi_http Digital Object Identifier
dx_doi_https Digital Object Identifier
scholia Scholia